The post Problem & Consequences of PID tuning gain values appeared first on Study Material Online.

]]>Before knowing the Problems in tuning Gain Values you must know about the PID Basics and its use in drones.

So we consider that you know about the Basics of PID. Lets discuss about the problems faced during its tuning.

- The main problem is to set values of the multipliers (gain) Kp, Kd and Ki according to our design, our sensors accuracy and tolerance.

**So as to set these values there are two methods:**

**Manual tuning**

**Auto tuning**** **

- Manual tuning took much time and after each tuned value we have to check the behavior of our system.It may be dangerous so, we follow various precautions before testing.
- PID values decides percentage of how much our system is manually controlled and how much is controlled by our algorithm.
- Surprisingly, as many as 75% of control loops actually increase its variability. Many control loops simply do not do their jobs. Setpoints are not followed, valves swing around, creating oscillations so many of the control loops are disabled by the operator by operating it in MANUAL mode.
- Poor performance happens in large part due to control loop configuration issues. Studies of control loops in the process industries give some insight into the root cause of these issues. For example:
- 30% of Control Loops Improperly Configured
- 85% of Control Loops Have Sub-Optimal Tuning
- 15% of Control Valves are Improperly Sized

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]]>The post How to use PID Controller in Quadcopter & Multirotors? appeared first on Study Material Online.

]]>Drone is simply a machine which reduces human effort and pay to do some basic and extraordinary kind of jobs like surveillance, security, delivery, Videographer etc.

So to perform these operations we have to make it safe, operative, stable, manual controllableor autonomous etc. with the help of PID control algorithm.

**Now the question raises**, what happen if we are not using PID algorithm in our drone?

**So the Answer is** that the Drone without PID will be flipped several times during its flight and will no longer be in air for more time.

If we are not using PID algorithmwhich means that our drone is totally manually controlled.

**Let’s visualize the problem:**

Suppose we have a Quadcopter without PID algorithm in my microcontroller but all the other things like ESCs, motors, propellers, battery are present and are well connected through Rx.

When a throttle is given to it and want to hold at (10, 10, 10) point in space. Instead of remaining stable at this point the drone will keep oscillating around that point, this same problem will occurs if we want to do pitching and yawing in our drone.

Hope you liked the above article about **How to use PID Controller in Quadcopter & Multirotors?** How can we use it in various systems? If you liked the above given article do share us on social networking like Facebook, Google, Twitter and others.

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]]>The post What is PID Controller loop? Proportional Integral Derivative appeared first on Study Material Online.

]]>

PID (Propotional, Integral, Derivative) is a control ‘algorithm’ which means Proportional integral and derivative, control algorithm in sense it controls system’s current output with respect to Set value & previous output and the difference between these quantities is called Error. PID controller is always work with the **Close loop systems **as figure-1.

There are some points, you should know about them before move ahead:

**Set point or Set value:**Set point is that value which we want from our system.

**Set value = Desired output of our system**

**Error:**Error is basically the difference between set point and sensor measurement.

**Error = Set value –** **Sensor measurement**

**Control calculation:**That block consists of PID control algorithm which reduces the error value and give net value to our system**.**

** **Error is the key point. This is given to PID control block through feedback mechanism.

Now question rises, how do we measure the feedback to compare the output with set value? This job is done by the simple Sensors which are setup in between output and Set value.

Now comes to working of P, I and D.

As its name suggests, Proportional part of PID control algorithm is that part which works like a camera and record each and every moments of error value which is basically the difference between the **Set value** and **previous output** of system.

Mathematically we can say that output of Proportional Block is directly proportional to Error value.

**Output=Gain(Kp) * Error**

As shown in figure camera capture each and every second image of running man.

Integral means **Area under the curve,** it analysis area of the error curve. And after that integral algorithm try to reduce it towards zero by taking some favorable action.

**Let’s take an example:**

Suppose we have to design a system which makes Mr. A’s stomach healthy so we calculates how much food is currently present in Mr. A’s stomach, firstly we have to design a sensor which sense amount of food and gives the area taken by the food wrt. Area of the stomach and it varies every time when Mr.A comes from washroom. That difference is a Sinusoidal graph whose net area is calculated by **Integral algorithm** and try to reduce to make Mr. A healthy.

**Let’s take another example**:

In case of a water sprinkler system basically it design to sprinkling the water in garden initially it is an open loop system ,that means our system does not know at time t ,garden required more sprinkling or not or we can say that it is manually controlled .

Now we are going to put a moisture sensor in feedback and make it close loop system, and put a set value for comparison and error give into **I Controller **it calculate net area of error function and reduce it zero to make system more stable.

**Output=Gain (Ki) * ∫(Error) dt**

Derivative part of PID algorithm calculates the slope of error curve at each point and find its equivalent slope of error and feed it to the system which reduces it to Zero to make system more stable.

**Let’s take an example: **

Suppose I want to move my car from start point to destination point and it has error of deviation from its path or overshoot the location of destination point. So we have to design a system which reduces these errors. First we took feedback from its output (which provides current location) at every point wrt. Start point and give it to the **D Controller** which is accelerate and retard the car according to destination point and reduce previous errors.

**Let’s take another example: **

Suppose we have to design a system which take care of human heart wrt a healthy heart it sense activity of heart through ECG machine and if an error occurs that means comparison is non-zero, then inject medicine till the slope of that error function at any point is not equal to zero. When the error becomes zero that means the system becomes stable i.e. the heart is healthier than before.

**Output=Gain(Kd) * d/dt(Error)**

So here we discussed about the various parameters of PID Control which are as follows:

**P** for Propotional

**I** for Integral

**D** for Derivative

Hope you liked the above article about **What is PID** ? How can we use it in various systems? If you liked the above given article do share us on social networking like Facebook, Google, Twitter and others.

The post What is PID Controller loop? Proportional Integral Derivative appeared first on Study Material Online.

]]>The post What is PID Controller loop? Proportional Integral Derivative appeared first on Study Material Online.

]]>

PID is a control ‘algorithm’ which means Proportional integral and derivative, control algorithm in sense it controls system’s current output with respect to Set value & previous output and the difference between these quantities is called Error. PID controller is always work with the **Close loop systems **as figure-1.

There are some points, you should know about them before move ahead:

**Set point or Set value:**Set point is that value which we want from our system.

**Set value = Desired output of our system**

**Error:**Error is basically the difference between set point and sensor measurement.

**Error = Set value –** **Sensor measurement**

**Control calculation:**That block contains PID control algorithm which reduces the error value and give net value to our system**.**

** **Error is the key point. This is given to PID control block through feedback mechanism.

Now question rises, how do we measure the feedback to compare the output with set value? This job is done by the simple Sensors which are setup in between output and Set value.

Now comes to working of P, I and D.

As its name suggests, Proportional part of PID control algorithm is that part which works like a camera and record each and every moments of error value which is basically the difference between the **Set value** and **previous output** of system.

Mathematically we can say that output of Proportional Block is directly proportional to Error value.

**Output=Gain(Kp) * Error**

As shown in figure camera capture each and every second image of running man.

Integral means **Area under the curve,** it analysis area of the error curve. And after that integral algorithm try to reduce it towards zero by taking some favorable action.

**Let’s take an example:**

Suppose we have to design a system which makes Mr. A’s stomach healthy so we calculates how much food is currently present in Mr. A’s stomach, firstly we have to design a sensor which sense amount of food and gives the area taken by the food wrt. Area of the stomach and it varies every time when Mr.A comes from washroom. That difference is a Sinusoidal graph whose net area is calculated by **Integral algorithm** and try to reduce to make Mr. A healthy.

**Let’s take another example**:

In case of a water sprinkler system basically it design to sprinkling the water in garden initially it is an open loop system ,that means our system does not know at time t ,garden required more sprinkling or not or we can say that it is manually controlled .

Now we are going to put a moisture sensor in feedback and make it close loop system, and put a set value for comparison and error give into **I Controller **it calculate net area of error function and reduce it zero to make system more stable.

**Output=Gain (Ki) * ∫(Error) dt**

Derivative part of PID algorithm calculates the slope of error curve at each point and find its equivalent slope of error and feed it to the system which reduces it to Zero to make system more stable.

**Let’s take an example: **

Suppose I want to move my car from start point to destination point and it has error of deviation from its path or overshoot the location of destination point. So we have to design a system which reduces these errors. First we took feedback from its output (which provides current location) at every point wrt. Start point and give it to the **D Controller** which is accelerate and retard the car according to destination point and reduce previous errors.

**Let’s take another example: **

Suppose we have to design a system which take care of human heart wrt a healthy heart it sense activity of heart through ECG machine and if an error occurs that means comparison is non-zero, then inject medicine till the slope of that error function at any point is not equal to zero. When the error becomes zero that means the system becomes stable i.e. the heart is healthier than before.

**Output=Gain(Kd) * d/dt(Error)**

So here we discussed about the various parameters of PID Control which are as follows:

**P** for Propotional

**I** for Integral

**D** for Derivative

Hope you liked the above article about What is PID ? How can we use it in various systems? If you liked the above given article do share us on social networking like Facebook, Google, Twitter and others. You can also take the reference from our website www.dronepic.co.in.